Dieting is an ingesting food practice to maintain or achieve the person’s controlled weight. In order to lose weight, most individuals combine dietingdiet and physical exercises together.

However, some athletes follow dieting to gain their weight (generally, in their muscles). A diet may also be used to keep body weight under control. The diets used to help lose weight are usually divided into 4 categories:  Low-carbohydrate, Low Fat, Very Low Calorie and Low Calorie. A Meta-test of 6 randomized trials revealed no differences between the 3 main categories (low fat, low carbohydrate and low calorie), with two to four kg (kilogram) loss of weight in all researches. At 2 years, all calorie-decreased diet types  result in equal loss of weight irrespective to emphasized macronutrients.

The 1st most popular diet was ”Banting”, called after the scientist William Banting. In his 1863 brochure ”Letter on Corpulence”, he noted the specific low calorie, low carbohydrate diet that caused him to lose dramatic weight.

The following are the different types of diets that exist:

1. Low-carbohydrate diet such as Protein Power and Atkins, are enough high in protein. Such type of diet is , in some cases, ketogenic that restricts carbohydrate use to result in ketosis.

2. Low fat diet involving decrease of fat percentage in the person’s diet. Consumption of calorie is decreased because less fat is consumed by the person’s body. Such type of diet consists of NCEP One and Two. A Meta-test of sixteen trials during the period of two twelve months revealed that low-fat diet caused about 3.2kg (kilogram) or 7.1 lb of weight loss.

3. Very low calorie diet consists of intake of 300-800 calories a day, maintaining use of protein but limiting calories from carbohydrates and fats. Such diet results in body starvation and causes weekly loss of weight at about 1.5-2.5kg (kilogram) or 3.3 – 5.5lb. ”Two-Four-Six-Eight” is a popular diet of  ”very-low calorie” type, following a 4 day period where only 200 calories are taken at the 1st day; 400 calories-the 2nd day; 600 calories-the 3rd day; 800 calories in the 4th day; and after that the person repeats the same cycle. Such diet is not advised for all obese or overweight people, because it may cause such side effects as electrolyte imbalance, lean muscle masses loss, and possible, gout risks. And individuals trying those diets should be monitored by their doctor to prevent any complications.

4. Detox diets work by eliminating toxins from the person’s body, increasing of urine produced amount, thus not letting to give the person’s body enough time to absorb toxins and fats containing in daily meals. Detox diet frequently causes side effects, resulted from absence of these toxins during the first 2 or 3 days that may include diarrhea, headaches and sleepy feelings. Such diet must never be used without taking medical advice first.

5. Low calorie diet generally produces a deficit of energy of 500-1000 calories a day, that can cause 0.5kg (kilogram)-1.1 lb to 1kg (2.2 lb) loss of weight per week. Low calorie diets include: ”Diet to Go”, Weight Watchers, and DASH diets. The NTH (National Institute of Health) randomly studied 35 cases to define the low-calorie diet effectiveness. It revealed that such diets reduced total mass of person’s body by 8 percent in the period over three-twelve months.

Side effects of dieting , especially in people with rapid weight loss and extremely decreased food intake may include: depression, prolonged hunger, fatigue, fainting, irritability, decreased sex drive, rashes, seizures, malnutrition, sinus problems, acidosis, constipation, lowered metabolism, bulimia nervosa, dehydration, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, gallbladder disease, and bloodshot eyes.

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