Joint Replacement

Joint replacement is performed by replacement of a natural joint such as knee, shoulder, wrist, ample, ankle or elbow.

For example, knee replacement needs to be done in people with severe osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis when these medical conditions do not respond to medical treatment, or trauma that bring damage to the knee joint beyond repair. Joint replacement of the knee is done when the individual’s leg is shaved on the night or the morning before surgery. The patient is taken to the operating room where he or she gets a general anesthetic. The knee is opened and the joint is examined to determine the amount of bone damage. X-ray is performed right before the surgery and correctly sized prosthesis that will permit removal of all damaged bone and insure good stability is selected. The different ligaments are freed from their attachments to the bone surfaces that will be removed. The top of the tibia and the end of the femur are cut off with a bone saw.

The canal in the center of the bone is reamed deep enough to allow insertion of the prosthesis to a depth that will preserve the normal length of the leg. If the cemented procedure is used, cement is applied to the artificial parts before they are inserted into the bone for the final time; otherwise they are pressed into place.

The joint of the knee is carefully resembled with as little disruption of the ligament as possible; the ligaments that had to be taken out from bony surfaces are reattached and the joint is inserted in a castand where after the individual is transferred to the recovery room.

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