Tibia Fracture may happen from various injury types. The Tibia is the main lower leg’s bone, usually referred to as the shin bone. Tibia Fracture comes in different size and shape, and each fracture should be treated depending on factors.
Treatment for a tibia fracture should be considered based on: associated injuries, fractures location, fracture alignment, fracture displacement, patient’s general health and soft tissue condition around the patient’s fracture. Generally, Tibia fractures may be classified in 3 categories depending on fracture location. It must be noted that compound open fractures should be treated specially.
Open Fracture happens when the bone which is fractured, is open through the person’s skin. Such open fracture is at higher risk to progress an infection and usually needs surgery. Tibial Shaft Fracture is the most common tibia’s fracture type and happens between the ankle joints and knee. Most of such types of fractures may be treated in a long leg cast. However, some types of fractures have angulation or too much displacement and may be need surgery to realign and secure the person’s bones.Tibial shaft fracture is common injury that may happen after car incidents, falls, sports activity, and other activities. This type of fracture may be cured by different methods based on the bone alignment and type of fracture.
Tibial Plafond fracture happens at the shin bone’s bottom around the person’s ankle joint. Such type of fracture requires special treatment because of the ankle cartilage surface. Tibial plafond fracture is also complicated because of possible surrounding soft tissues damage. Tibial Plateau Fracture happens just below the person’s knee joint. This type of fracture requires knee joint and its cartilage surface consideration. Tibial Plateau Fracture may result in the progressing of knees arthritis.
The most common treatments of tibias include:
1. IM (intrameduallary rodding) – a procedure to place a medal rod down of the tibia’s center to hold the bone alignment. Such surgery lasts about 1 hour and 30 minutes, and is commonly performed under general anesthesia. Patients have an incision over the knee joint, and small incisions above the patient’s ankle and below the knee. Additionally, some types of fractures may need the incision close to the fracture to realign the patient’s bones. Intrameduallary (IM) rodding rods are secured within the person’s bone by using screws in both below and above the fracture. The rod and metal screws may be removed at any time if they result in the problems, but may also be left in place forever. Tibial rodding provide the greatest fixation and bones alignment. The most common side effects of such surgical procedure are infection and knee pain. Rod infection can require rod removal to treat an infection.
2. Casting is appropriate for the treatment of tibial shaft fracture that is well aligned and not badly displaced. Individuals require to be in cast that goes below the person’s ankle and above the knee (long leg cast). The casting advantage is that tibial shaft fracture tending to heal well and such casting avoids the surgery’s potential risk, such as infection. Individuals with casts should be monitored to be sure the bone maintains its alignment and ensure adequate tibia’s healing.
3. External Fixator can also be beneficial in some specific types of fractures. External fixator usually used in more significant fractures, particularly, in open fracture with associated laceration and damage of the soft tissue. In such cases, the placement of intrameduallary (IM) rodding or plates might not be possible because of damage of the soft tissue. When severe soft tissue injury occurs, an external fixator can provide greatest immobilization while monitoring an surrounding soft tissues treatment.
4. Plates and screws are less commonly used, but they are extremely beneficial in some types of fractures, particularly, in tibial plafond fractures and tibial plateau. Many surgeons choose the meduallary rod for tibial shaft fracture until such fracture close to the surface’s joint; the plates and screws can be excellent fixation method.
5. Non Displaced Tibial Plateau Fracture is a crack in the person’s bone seen on X-ray, but bones remain in alignment and its proper position. Most such fractures may be cured without surgery, but it requires longer period of time (approx. 3 months) of walking protection. Some non displaced fractures are at displacing risk (shifting position) in the days or months following injury and such fracture should be closely monitored by surgeon. If displacement happens, the surgery can be required to realign the fragments of the bone and hold it in proper position.