Hyperphosphatemia (high level of phosphate in blood) is a condition, in which phosphate concentration in blood higher than 4.5 mg (milligram) per blood deciliter.

Normal kidneys are so efficient at excess of phosphate excretion, that Hyperphosphatemia seldom happens except in individuals with severe dysfunction of the kidneys. For patients,Hyperphosphatemia who have kidney failure, Hyperphosphatemia is a problem, because dialysis is not enough effective at removing phosphate. There are several outward symptoms of Hyperphosphatemia.

When the concentration of phosphate in the blood increases in a dialysis patient, the concentration of calcium in blood becomes low. It stimulates the parathyroid glands to produce a hormone, which in turn increases the calcium concentration in blood by mobilizing calcium from the bones. If such condition continues, severe bone weakness can happen, causing fractures and pain by minimal trauma. Phosphate and calcium may crystallize in the blood, vessel’s wall and heart resulting in severe arteriosclerosis (hardening of the artery) and causing poor circulation, heart attacks and strokes.

Crystals may also build in the person’s skin where they result in severe itching. Hyperphosphatemia in patients, who have kidney injury, is treated by lowering the phosphate absorption from gastrointestinal tract and reducing phosphate intake. Food consisting of high phosphate amount, must be avoided and antacids consisting of calcium, must be used with the meal so that the calcium may bind to the phosphates in the intestine and not be absorbed. Prolonged parathyroid glands stimulation can result in Hyperparathyroidism, requiring glands to be removed surgically.

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