Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a medical condition, where glucose  (simple sugar) blood levels are extremely high because the person’s body does not use or release insulin adequately. Blood sugar level varies during the day, increasing after eating and returning to normal within two hours. Sugar levels in blood is normally between 70 and 110mg (miligram) per deciliter(mg/dl) of blood in the morning hours after overnight. The sugar level in blood generally lower than 120 to 140miligram per deciliter of blood 2 hours after drinking liquid, consisting of sugar or other carbohydrates, or after eating food.

Diabetes happens, when the person’s body does not create enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control or when cells do not respondDiabetes Mellitus properly to insulin. Individuals wit type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (called insulin-dependent diabetes) produce little or no insulin at all. Although, about 6% of the u.s. people have some diabetes form, only about 10% of all people with diabetes have type1 Diabetes Mellitus. Most individuals with type-1 diabetes mellitus progressed the disease before age thirty.

Researchers suggest that this type of diabetes may be caused by nutritional factors in early adulthood or childhood; or viral infections, as well as genetic predisposition. Regarding the cause in the type1 Mellitus, more than 90% of the beta cells (insulin producing cells) of the person’s pancreas are destroyed permanently. To survive, the patient with type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, should inject insulin, as prescribed by doctor.

In type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (not insulin dependent diabetes), the person’s pancreas continues to produce insulin; in some cases even at higher levels than normal. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can appear in adolescents and children, but usually starts after age 30 and progresses with age. Approx. 15% of individuals over age seventy have type2 Diabetes Mellitus. This form of diabetes may be caused by obesity. Specific cultural and racial groups are at higher risk to have type2 diabetes. This type diabetes also tends to run in families.

In individuals with type1 diabetes mellitus, the symptoms start suddenly and can develop quickly to a medical condition known as diabetes ketoacidosis, in which symptoms include excessive urination and thirst, abdominal pain (especially in children), weight loss, fatigue, vomiting and nausea. Breathing becomes rapid and deep, as the person’s body tries to correct acidity in blood. The patient’s breath smells  like nail polish removers.  If not treated, diabetes ketoacidosis may cause coma. Individuals with type2 Diabetes Mellitus might not experience any symptoms for years or decades. When deficiency of insulin is progressing, symptoms can develop.  Excessive urination and thirst are mild in the beginning and slowly becoming worse over months or weeks.

In cases of type 2 diabetes cases, ketoacidosis is rare. If the levels of blood sugar become very high (frequently exceed 1,000 mg/dl), usually caused by drugs or infections, the patient can progress severe dehydration, which can lead to nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma, as well to seizures, drowsinnes and mental confusion.

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus include: leaking and thicken small blood vessels; accelerated atherosclerosis; skin, heart, kidneys, brain, eyes and leg damage; and poor circulation makes healing such injuries slow. Strokes and heart attacks are common. Vision loss  (diabetic retinopathy) , kidneys failure, mononeuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy, foot ulcers, may occur in person with Diabetes Mellitus.

Current study shows, that diabetes complications may be prevented, slowed or delayed by keeping blood sugar levels under control. Diabetes Mellitus diagnosis is determined when a patient has high sugar levels in blood. Doctors can also check sugar blood levels to find the causes of such symptoms, as hunger, urination, or increased thirst; or if a patient has certain risk factors such as repeated infections, obesity, diabetes history or any other complications, connected with diabetes.

The blood sample generally is obtained after the patient had fasted for approx. eight hours, but it also can be obtained after eating.  Some blood sugar elevations after eating are normal, but even then the level must not be too high. In individuals over 65 years old, the tests are best done after fasting, because elderly have an extreme blood sugar level increase after taking meal.

Another type of blood test is called oral glucose tolerance test, can be done in specific situations, such as when doctors suggest that a pregnant female is having gestational diabetes. In such test, an individual fasts, has a blood sample obtained for the fasting sugar level in blood, and after that is drinking a specific solution, consisting of a standard glucose amount. More blood samples are then taken over the next two or three hours.

The major goal of Diabetes Mellitus treatment is to keep sugar levels in blood under control. The treatment needs attention to diet, excercise, and weight control. Either hypoglycemic medication or insulin replacement therapy is frequently needed and diet is very important. Usually, individuals with Diabetes Mellitus should not use too much sweet foods and must eat their meals regularly. Limiting saturated fat amount in diet is recommended to keep cholesterol levels under control, because diabetes have tendency to have increased cholesterol levels.

Many individuals with Diabetes Mellitus greatly benefit from learning about diabetes disease and what they may do to help to keep it under control. Diabetes should also take special care to prevent foot infection and may frequently benefit from having their toenail cut by specialist podiatrist. Yearly eye tests are important to check for blood vessels changes that may cause diabetic retinopathy (blindness). In cases of low or high sugar levels in blood or injuries, individuals with Diabetes Mellitus must always wear a Medic Alert Bracelet or card identifying the diabetes disease.

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