Dementia is the decline of mental ability, that commonly progresses slowly, in which ability to learn and pay attention, memory, judgement, and thinking are impaired, and personality Dementiacan deteriorate.

Dementia may progress abruptly in young individuals when a disease, severe injury, or toxic substance (such as carbon monoxide) destroys cells of the brain. However, the condition commonly develops slowly and affects in individuals over 60 years of age. At any case, dementia is not a normal part of aging. While the individual who is aging normally forgets details, the individual who has dementia can forget all of the current events.

The major dementia’s cause is Alzheimer’s disease. Another major cause of dementia is successive stroke, which is small, causing no or little prompt weakness and sometimes paralysis that is caused by larger strokes. Such small strokes slowly destroy tissue of the brain; destroyed parts caused by blocked blood supply are known as infarct. Because of such form of dementia caused by many small strokes, the condition is called multi-infarct dementia. Most individuals with this type of dementia have had diabetes or high blood pressure, which damages brain blood vessels.

Dementia also may be caused by cardiac arrest incidences or injury of the brain. Other causes may include Picks disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Mad Cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and AIDS. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus causes unusual kind of dementia which unlike various other dementia causes, may be reversed treated at early stages. Individuals suffering with repeated injuries of the head, (for example boxers), frequently develop dementia pugilistica (chronic developing traumatic encephalopathy). Some elderly with depression have pseudodementia. Dementia generally starts slowly and worsens over time. Abilities to recognize objects, people, and places; the abilities to keep track of time, and memory all diminish. Individuals who have dementia experience difficulties using and finding the right words and have difficulties with abstract thinking (for example, working with numbers). Personality changes are also common; frequently a particular personality trait is exaggerated.

A physician diagnoses dementia depending on family history, overall situations, person’s age, presence of other diseases (like diabetes or high blood pressure), and how the symptoms begun and how they progress. A doctor looks for a treatable cause for reduced mental function, including depression, thyroid disease, drug toxicity, vitamin deficiency, and abnormal levels of electrolytes in the blood. Complete blood chemistry tests are always done, and a physician reviews all of the individual’s prescription medications to see if they can be fault. Physician can perform MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computed tomography) scans to eliminate stroke, ydrocephalus, or brain tumors. Most dementias are not curable. People with dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease may be given medication Tacrine, which may be helpful, but have severe side effects.

The dementia resulted from successive small strokes may not be treated. Recently, no treatment is available for dementia resulted from AIDS or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. If dementia is resulted from depression, antidepressant medications, and counseling can help. Dementia, resulted from normal-pressure hydrocephalus, diagnosed earlier, sometimes may be treated by removing excessive fluid within the person’s brain using drainage tube (called shunting). Physicians frequently prescribe such antipsychotic medications, like Haloperidol and Thioridazine to keep under control outbursts and agitation that can accompany advanced dementia, but unfortunately, such drugs are not too effective to control behavior, and they may result in severe side effects. Antipsychotic medications work best in individuals with hallucinations or paranola. Although dementia is a chronic disorder and intellectual functions may not be restored, supportive measures may be very helpful. For instance, large calendars and clocks may help orient the individuals and caregivers may make comments often that remind them of what is going on or where they are. A cheerful and bright environment regular low stress activity, and minimal new stimulations may be helpful. A caregiver should provide proper directions but avoid treating the individual like a child.

Because of common dementia development, future plans are important. This planning generally combines efforts of a social work, a physician lawyer, and nurses. However most responsibilities fall on the family of the person with dementia, and the stress may be significant. Social agencies may help find proper source of help, such as home nursing visits, day care programs, live-in assistance, and full or part time housekeeping assistance. As an individual’s condition progresses, a nursing home can give the best care.


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