Cholera

Cholera is a medical condition, in which the small intestine results from the bacterium, known as Vibrio Cholerae. Cholera forms a toxin that results in the small intestine to secrete excessive amounts of fluids rich in minerals and salt. Because the Cholera bacteria is sensitive to stomach’s acids, patients with acid deficiency are more likely to contact this infection.

Individuals, who live in those areas, where cholera is endemic (common) usually develop some natural immunity. Cholera is transmitted by seafood, ingesting water or other products, Cholera 300x227 Choleracontaminated by infected individual’s excrement. This disease is common in some areas of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Middle East, and outbreaks mainly occur during the warm periods; and episodes of cholera are most likely to happen in children.  Recently in 2011, a lot of individuals in Haiti have suffered as a result of a cholera outbreak. In other places, epidemics can happen in different weather environments, and those of any age.

Symptoms usually start one to three days after person contracted the bacterium, ranging from a mild to a severe, possibly fatal infection. Cholera’s symptoms commonly begin with abrupt, watery, painless diarrhea and vomiting. In serious incidences, the diarrhea results in a loss of more than one quart of fluids per 1 hour, but in a milder cases fluid loss is lower.In serious cases, the loss much water and salt cause severe dehydrations with intense thirst, weakness, minimal urine producing, and muscle cramps. Excessive loss of water from body’s tissues result in eyes to turn to be sunken and finger’s skin to become severely wrinkled. If Cholera is untreated, significant imbalances in blood count and the higher amounts of salt, may cause shock, leading to failure of kidneys, and coma.

Symptoms commonly subside in three to six days. Most individuals are clear of the organism in two weeks, but some suffer long term. A doctor diagnoses Cholera by recovering the bacteria from a rectal swab or sample of fresh stool. In a Vibro-choleral bacterium case, a special culture for organisms of Vibro is required. Prevention of Cholera consists of purified water supply, appropriate disposal of patient excrement, as well as boiling water and excluding uncooked vegetables or undercooked shellfish or fish. The vaccine for Cholera infection only protects partially and usually is not recommended.

Immediate antibiotic tetracycline treatment may help protect from the disease in individuals, who share the same household as an individual with the Cholera infection. Quick replacement of fluid, minerals and salt is very essential to cure this disease. In severe dehydrated patients, who are not able to drink, intravenous fluid is given. In epidemic cases, individuals may receive fluid via a tube, by inserting it through the patient’s nose into his or her stomach.

At the time, the dehydration is controlled, the main treatment is consists of replacing the exact amount of fluid lost in vomiting and in bowel movements. Solid food may be used after vomiting is under control and the appetite is back to normal. Earlier curing by using tetracycline or similar antibiotics, destroys the bacteria and able to stop diarrhea in 2 days. More than 50% of untreated patients, who have severe Cholera die. Less than 1% of those who receive immediate, adequate fluids replacement are dying.

Most recent Cholera outbreak in Haiti (Video)

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