Bronchiolitis is a viral contagious airway infection in young children and infants, that results in breathing difficulties, particularly, breathing out. Various viruses may result in Bronchiolitisbronchiolitis, such as parainfluenza viruses and syncytial virus.

Bronchiolitis frequently happens in epidemics, especially, in children under eighteen months of age and more common in infants under six months of age. Bronchiolitis affects approx 11 out of 100 children during the first year of life. An infection generally caused by cold, which is upper airway’s infection. Abrupt difficulties in breathing, particularly in breathing out, is developing with hacking cough, rapid heartbeats, and rapid breathing. Children can have a fever and feel extremely sleepy. Children can tire and begin breathing ineffectively and shallowly. Reduced drinking or vomiting can dehydrate the children.

Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis depends on the symptoms. Most children are recovering at home in three to five days and frequent small clear liquids’ feedings can be given. The child must be hospitalized, if he or she has dehydration, fatigue, bluish skin discoloration, and difficulty in breathing. A child with an impaired immune system and heart disease must be hospitalized promptly.

With appropriate treatment, Bronchiolitis in severe form, may be fatal in less than 1% of cases. While in hospital, the blood levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen are regularly monitored. Oxygen is commonly given by a face mask or an oxygen tent. A ventilator can be needed to help breathing. An intravenous fluids can be given and ultrasonic nebulizer can be used to loosen secretions by opening the airways. An antiviral medication-ribavirin can be given to premature infants or with other high risk conditions.

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